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of the mainspring is very different when the carriage is
in a position to write at i on the scale, to what it is when
65 or 70 is reached. This fact has been taken into
consideration in many machines, and we shall find here-
after that in the National, the Ideal, and so on, means
have been taken for securing -a centre-driven carriage.
The escapement was also re-modelled. Instead of
having two dogs, one rigid and the other loose, playing
in a single rack, the Caligraph introduced a single dog,
working between two racks, the one loose and the other
The space-bars, also, were a novelty, and were pro-
bably the first serious attempt to bring about an all-finger
style of operation. Two such bars were provided, one
at each side of the machine, and it was intended that
these should be depressed by the little fingers.
The type-bars were provided with adjustable nuts
and bolts, for taking up wear and recovering alignment
and in the later models an improved ribbon feed, per-
mitting of a lateral as well as a sideways action was used.
It is interesting, also, to note that the platen of the
Caligraph was not round, as in the Remington, but was
planed off into a series of facets. The object was to
secure a flat surface for a perfectly flat faced type to
strike upon. Later inventors got over this difficulty by
hollowing out the type so as to make them conform to
the curve of the platen.
The Caligraph was made in several numbers, and an
old No. i in our possession seems to justify the title being
given to the machine of “ The machine that won’t wear
out.” This machine used capitals only, but others
incorporated full keyboards.